This briefing presents preliminary results of an international study on the role of grandparents in family life carried out by King’s College London and supported by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in partnership with Grandparents Plus and the Beth Johnson Foundation. This project’s overall aim involves two interrelated issues: (1) what grandparenting looks like across selected European countries – including the diversity of grandparents, the families they care for, and the intensity and type of care that they provide, and (2) how family policies in different countries are specifically related to these varying patterns. This briefing focuses on the following two (out of the wider study’s four) objectives: 1. How do the living arrangements of grandparents vary across particular European countries and how have they changed over time? 2. How do the characteristics of grandparents vary across selected European countries in terms of age, living arrangements, tenure status, socio-economic status, education, and marital status, participation in paid work, retirement status and health? To read full briefing down the PDF below.